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How farmers’ co-ops reduce poverty in NW china’spastoral are

日期:2019-05-14 02:40 作者:admin 阅读:

How farmers’ co-ops reduce poverty in NW china’spastoral areas

农业合作社如何消除中国西北牧区的贫穷现象

  编者按:金秋十月,中华人民共和国将迎来70华诞。根据中央宣传部统一部署,4月11日至28日,以中央电视台、中国新闻社、青海电视台、青海日报、青海新闻网等主流媒体组成的“壮丽70年·奋斗新时代”媒体采访团走进果洛州开展为期半个多月的蹲点采访,他们深入基层,走进群众,用笔墨书写新中国成立70年来一个藏族自治州的巨大变化。

  媒体采访团记者围绕脱贫攻坚、乡村振兴、民族团结、援青成果等内容,用敏锐视角、多彩镜头、生花妙笔,在基层一线见证群众脱贫致富的奋斗历程,用心用情讲好果洛故事。

  以下是中央广播电视总台中国国际台(CGTN)新媒体记者陈恺然发来的报道。  

  For a long time, animal husbandry has been the primary source of income for thevillagers in Ganglong township of northwest China's Qinghai Province. However,due to overgrazing, natural disasters and human-made destruction, grasslanddegradation, desertification, pest and rodent infestation are growing issueswhich severely restrict the sustainable development of animal husbandry. Inthis context, the "Ganglong Ecological Animal Husbandry Cooperatives"emerged.

  长期以来,畜牧业是中国青海省岗龙乡牧民的首要收入来源。但是,由于过渡放牧、自然灾害加之人为破坏导致草场退化,荒漠化、虫害和啮齿动物的侵扰是严重制约畜牧业可持续发展的突出问题。在这种背景下,“岗龙乡生态畜牧业合作社”应运而生。

  The start of a farmer's co-op

  农民合作社的开端

  InAugust 2009, Ganglong township held a municipal assembly during which thevillagers decided to use 150,000 yuan (22,400 U.S. dollars) of poverty alleviationfunding by the provincial government as starting capital to form a farmers'cooperative.

  2009年8月,岗龙乡政府召开会议,决定利用省政府15万(2.24万美元)扶贫资金作为成立农民合作社的前期启动资金。

  Agriculturalcooperatives adopt a shareholding system. Herder families exchange theirlivestock or grassland for equal shares to become shareholders. Herders,milking workers and other professionals in the industrial chain may voluntarilychoose their position or be elected by the cooperative.

  农业合作社采用股权制。牧民家庭利用家畜或草场交换相等份额的股权成为股东。牧民、挤奶工、和其他专业人士可在合作社的产业链中自愿选择岗位或被合作社招录到相应岗位。

  The co-ops sell yogurt and other livestock-related products. The herders and otherfarm workers receive a monthly salary so that they can cover the cost of theirexpenses, such as grazing. All those who joined a co-op are paid a stockdividend at the end of the year.

  合作社出售酸奶和其他畜牧产品。牧民和其他农场工人按月获取报酬以作为工资,如:放牧工可获得放牧工资等。年底时,所有加入合作社的牧民都获得分红。

  Atfirst, only 22 herders joined the first co-op. In 2015, Ganglong township wasselected as the pilot cooperative of Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture topromote the grassland ecological animal husbandry zone. As a result, all 178households of herders have joined one of the two cooperatives, a total of 769people and 394 laborers. All the herders' livestock and grasslands have beenconverted into shares;4,095livestock are integrated.

  最初,只有22户牧民加入合作社。2015年,岗龙乡牧民合作社被选为“果洛藏族自治州推进草原生态畜牧业区试点合作社”。随后,全乡178户牧民家庭加入合作社,共有769人和394名劳工。所有牧民的家畜和草场转换成股份,整合了4,095头牲畜。

  Annual income increased by 900 percent

  年收入增加900%

  Thefirst change brought by the establishment of the agricultural cooperatives wasthat the herders' revenue significantly increased. In 2009, a local herderfamily's yearly income was around 1,000 yuan (149 U.S. dollars). In 2019, theaverage herder family's yearly income has risen to about 10,000 yuan (1,492U.S. dollars) – almost a 900 percent increase.

  建立农业合作社带来的第一大改变是牧民的收入大幅增加。2009年当地一户牧民的年收入是1000元(149美元),到2019年,牧民的年均收入上升到约10000元(1492美元)---收入增加约900%。

  Asecond change brought by the new shareholding system is that it liberates thelabor force, letting more people contribute to the development of otherindustries, such as Tibetan clothing production.

  新股份制带来的第二大变化是解放了劳动力。让更多的牧民为加入其他产业的发展,例如:藏服制作产业。

  Thirdly,the protection of the ecological environment has considerably improved.Grasslands were able to rehabilitate as the cooperative has adopted rotationalgrazing. In moving livestock between pastures, not only can forage productionbe increased, but the grass is allowed to recover, which promotes thesustainable development of ecological animal husbandry.

  第三大改变是生态环境保护成效大幅提升。合作社采用的轮流放牧使草场得以恢复,牲畜转场不仅使草料产量增加,还可以使牧场得以恢复,这进一步促进了生态畜牧业的可持续发展。

  

  Rats still a problem

  鼠害依旧严重

  Althoughthe cooperative system has seen great success during the past ten years,challenges still exist. According to Zanzhong, the chairman of one of thecooperatives in Ganglong township, the lack of professional financial personneldue to low education levels in the area has become a significant problemlimiting the development of the cooperatives.

  尽管合作社在过去十年取得巨大成果,但是挑战依旧存在。据岗龙乡合作社负责人赞忠介绍:由于教育基础薄弱导致缺乏专业财务人员目前是合作社发展所面临的重要挑战。

  Also,the farmer's lack of sales experience and partnering organizations limits theexpansion of the industry to other downstream sales markets.

  同时,由于牧民缺乏销售经验和合作关系的缺陷限制了产业扩展到其他下游销售市场。

  加之20世纪90年代过度放牧破坏了这一地区的生态平衡,导致鼠类和狼群的大量繁殖和破坏,这仍然影响如今的生产生活。

  扩展产品生产线

  当被问到合作社的将来和发展计划时,岗龙乡乡长辛有恭说:“虽然合作社发展态势良好,但缺乏龙头企业帮助合作社扩大市场是未来需要攻克的一个挑战。”

  “目前,我们的酸奶只能售往果洛州内,无法销往州外城市和地区。所以,目前我们正在寻找能和我们合作以获得更大市场的公司。”他说道。

  同时辛有恭补充道,很快合作社的生产线可以延伸到奶粉和奶酒的加工生产。此外,合作社还计划将雄性牦牛运到果洛州其他县,帮助其他村生态畜牧业的发展。”

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